Magickal Alphabets Correspondences
The use of the written word is common place in witchcraft. We use it for spells, candles, charms, and many other things. There are a variety of alphabets for us to choose from. These alphabets allow us to have secrecy in our writings as well as give a magickal feel to our workings which in turn can help our focus.
The most commonly used script is Theban which you see below. Theban Script which is also sometimes known as the Witch's Alphabet. The origins of the Theban alphabet are lost in the mists of time. It is often called "The Runes of Honorius" after its reputed inventor, Honorius of Thebes. Many witches write their entire Book of Shadows in this script. I personally do not advise it as it hard to read by candle light during your rituals.
Little is known about the origins of the Runic alphabet, which is traditionally known as futhark after the first six letters. In Old Norse the word rune means 'letter', 'text' or 'inscription'. The word also means 'mystery' or 'secret' in Old Germanic languages and runes had an important role in ritual and magic.
Here are some theories about the origins of runes:
The alphabet was probably created independently rather than evolving from another alphabet.
Runic writing was probably first used in southern Europe and was carried north by Germanic tribes.
The Runic alphabet is thought to have been modeled on the Latin and/or Etruscan alphabet.
The earliest known Runic inscriptions date from the 1st century AD, but the vast majority of Runic inscriptions date from the 11th century. Runic inscriptions have been found throughout Europe from the Balkans to Germany, Scandinavia and the British Isles.
There are a number of different versions of the Runic alphabet. Here are some below:
Elder Futhark is thought to be the oldest version of the Runic alphabet, and was used in the parts of Europe which were home to Germanic peoples, including Scandinavia. Other versions probably developed from it. The names of the letters are shown in Common Germanic, the reconstructed ancestor of all Germanic languages.
(The letter k is also called kēnaz (torch) or kanō (skiff). The meaning of the letter name perþ is unknown.)
Gothic, an extinct East Germanic language, was originally written with a Runic alphabet about which little is known. One theory of the origins of runes is that they were invented by the Goths, but this is impossible to prove as very few inscriptions of writing in Gothic runes survive. These runes were replaced with a new alphabet in the 4th century AD.
A number of extra letters were added to the Runic alphabet to write Anglo-Saxon/Old English. Runes were probably bought to Britain in the 5th century by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians (collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons), and were used until about the 11th century.
Runic inscriptions are mostly found on jewelery, weapons, stones and other objects. Very few examples of Runic writing on manuscripts have survived.
Younger Futhork or "Normal Runes" gradually evolved Elder Futhark over a period of many years and stabilized by about 800 A.D., the beginning of the Viking Age. It was the main alphabet in Norway, Sweden and Denmark throughout the Viking Age, but was largely though not completely replaced by the Latin alphabet by about 1200 as a result of the conversion of most of Scandinavia to Christianity.
Three slightly different versions of the alphabet developed in Denmark, Sweden and Norway:
Swedish-Norwegian / Short-twig / Rök Runes
Gothenburg / Bohuslän Runes
Medieval (Latinized) Futhark
After the arrival of Christianity in Scandinavia, the Runic alphabet was Latinized and was used occasionally, mainly for decoration until 1850.
The Ogham alphabet is thought to be named after the Irish god Ogma. One theory of its origins is that it evolved out of a system of tallies used for accounting. Ogham is also known as or ogham craobh, beth luis fearn or beth luis nion.
About 500 Ogham inscriptions have been found in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, England and the Isle of Man dating from between the 4th and 7th centuries AD. There are inscriptions in ancient Irish and Pictish which have not been deciphered. A number of bilingual inscriptions in Ogham and Latin or Ogham and Old Norse written with the Runic alphabet have been found.
While all surviving traces of Ogham are inscriptions on stone, it was probably more commonly inscribed on sticks, stakes and trees. Inscriptions generally take the form of somebody's name and the name of a place and were probably used to mark boundaries.
Origins of Egyptian Hieroglyphs
The ancient Egyptians believed that writing was invented by the god Thoth and called their hieroglyphic script "mdwt ntr" (god's words). The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) plus glypho (inscriptions) and was first used by Clement of Alexandria.
The earliest known examples of writing in Egypt have been dated to 3,400 BC. The latest dated inscription in hieroglyphs was made on the gate post of a temple at Philae in 396 AD.
The hieroglyphic script was used mainly for formal inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs. In some inscriptions the glyphs are very detailed and in full colour, in others they are simple outlines. For everyday writing the hieratic script was used.
After the Emperor Theodsius I ordered the closure of all pagan temples throughout the Roman Empire in the late 4th century AD, knowledge of the hieroglyphic script was lost until the early 19th century, when a French man named Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832) managed to decipher the script.
Possibly pre-dates Sumerian Cuneiform writing - if this is true, the Ancient Egyptian script is the oldest known writing system. Another possibility is that the two scripts developed at more or less the same time.
The direction of writing in the hieroglyphic script varied - it could be written in horizontal lines running either from left to right or from right to left, or in vertical columns running from top to bottom. You can tell the direction of any piece of writing by looking at the way the animals and people are facing - they look towards the beginning of the line.
The arrangement of glyphs was based partly on artistic considerations.
A fairly consistent core of 700 glyphs was used to write Classical or Middle Egyptian (ca. 2000-1650 BC), though during the Greco-Roman eras (332 BC - ca. 400 AD) over 5,000 glyphs were in use.
The glyphs have both semantic and phonetic values. For example, the glyph for crocodile is a picture of a crocodile and also represents the sound "msh". When writing the word for crocodile, the Ancient Egyptians combined a picture of a crocodile with the glyphs which spell out "msh". Similarly the hieroglyphs for cat, miw, combine the glyphs form, i and w with a picture of a cat.
Hieroglyphs representing single consonants
These glyphs alone could be used to write Ancient Egyptian and represent the first alphabet ever devised. In practice, they were rarely used in the fashion.
By combining the following glyphs, any number could be constructed. The higher value signs were always written in front of the lower value ones.
The Malachim alphabet is derived from the Hebrew and Greek alphabets. It was created by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa during the 16th Century and is still used by Freemasons to a limited extent. This version is from Bartolozzi's Biblioteca Magna Rabbinica, 1675.
Angelic / Celestial
The Angelic alphabet, which is also known as the Celestial alphabet, is derived from the Hebrew and Greek alphabets. It was created by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa during the 16th Century and was used for communication with angels.
Passing The River
The Passing the River or Passage du Fleuve alphabet is derived from the Hebrew alphabet and was created by Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa during the 16th Century.
The Enochian alphabet first appeared during the 16th century. The Court Astrologer and Magician, Dr. John Dee (1527-1608) and his associate, Sir Edward Kelly (1555-1597) claimed that the alphabet and the Enochian language were transmitted to them by angels.
Alphabet of the Magi
The Alphabet of the Magi was invented by Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (also known as Paracelsus) in the 16th century. He used it to engrave the names of angels on talismans which he claimed could treat illnesses and provide protection. It was probably influenced by the various other magical alphabets that were around at the time and also by the Hebrew script.
The Daggers alphabet or Alphabet of Daggers, is cypher based on the Latin alphabet and used for magical purposes. It appears in Aleister Crowley's The Vision and the Voice.
GREEK & HEBREW
Below is a commonly used table of Greek and Hebrew alphabet=numerical values. While many scholars disagree on the numerical values attached to the two alphabets, and valid arguments can be made, the table below is designed to be used as a reference point only and not as a basis of scholarly discussion.
I have included the information in this table because many "Old Religion" spells incorporate various numerical values in their text.